Recycled Concrete Aggregate

What is Recycled Concrete Aggregate (RCA)

Recycled concrete aggregate is aggregate made from used concrete from demolition sites. The quantity of old concrete from a demolition site depends on the type of building. For example, the list below shows the percentage of concrete for various building types.

  • Housing 47%
  • Leisure 50%
  • School 68%

The definition of Recycled concrete aggregate is it contains less than 5% of other hard materials such as brick and contain no inert or organic materials.

The Process to Produce Recycled Concrete Aggregate

Remove as much material from the building before demolition that can cause contamination, asbestos for example.

Remove the concrete elements such as the floors, frame and walls and move to one site for sorting.

Remove any glass, wood, plastic and metal. The use of an electromagnet can remove steel, including rebar.

Crush the concrete with a jaw crusher, impactor or cone crusher. Small pieces of scrap metal often go through the concrete crusher. After processing, it can be removed using an electromagnet.

The concrete may go through a jawbreaker first, then an impactor and finally sorted using a screener. The screener will stockpile the crushed concrete into aggregate size, for example, 25mm 12mm 5mm to dust.

Recycled Concrete Aggregate

Jaw Crushers

A jaw crusher breaks down the concrete between two verticle jaws. A weighted flywheel powers the jaws. One jaw is fixed and the other swing jaw moves backwards and forwards. The concrete is crushed using compressive force.

Jaw crushers are versatile and economical. They are perfect for processing hard and abrasive materials. Jaw crushers and simple machines and have a low maintenance cost compared to other machinery.

Recycled Concrete Aggregate

Impact Crusher

As the name implies, Impact crushes use impacts to crush material. Instead of applying compression to break the concrete, they use the impact of hammers. A hammer mill or horizontal shaft impactor, break the concrete by hitting it with heavy hammers that are fixed to a spinning shaft. An impact crusher is good to crush softer, nonabrasive materials.

Vertical shaft impactor crushers work by slinging pieces of concrete against the hard surface of the anvil. Velocity is used for crushing the material.

Vertical shaft impactor crushers are very good at handling more abrasive materials than horizontal compactors.

Impact crushers are very good at separating rebar and wire mesh from concrete. They are also easy to maintain with wearing parts being simple to replace.

Recycled Concrete Aggregate

Cone Crushers

Cone crushers work by squeezing the concrete through an eccentrically gyrating spindle and hopper. Concrete enters the crusher and is squeezed between the spindle’s mantel and the hopper liner. The small sections fall through for further treatment, and the larger pieces remain until they break down.

Cone crushers have a sturdy construction, lower operating costs, and are simple to adjust. They also offer high productivity rates as they can process wet material.

Recycled Concrete Aggregate


Once the concrete has been crushed, it is a mixture of lots of aggregate sizes. To allow the aggregate to be mixed into concrete they need to be separated. Once the material is separated a concrete technician can design the concrete mix.

Separation is carried out by putting the material through a screener. The screener will sort the material into aggregate sizes.

The material is passed over a vibrating screen box that has several different gauges. The material passes through the various screens to separate the aggregates. A belt conveyor then transports the aggregate to individual stockpiles for use.

Powerscreen equipment is either track or wheel mounted to make them mobile. This means the Powerscreen machine can move to the raw material rather than the expensive movement of the material to the screen.

Recycled Concrete Aggregate Plant & Equipment

The Fibo F2200 is an ideal concrete batching plant for making concrete from recycled concrete. The four bins make it practical to mix a range of concrete mixes using different combinations of crushed concrete, crushed concrete sand, natural sand and natural stone.

Your concrete technician can design and test a range of concrete mixes to give you a full range of concrete to use on site from weak mixes to reinforced concrete grades.

The F2200 has an output of between 30 and 45 m3 per hour. This can be doubled up using two machines for large pours.

Recycled Concrete Aggregate

Cost to Produce Recycled Concrete Aggregate

Cost to produce recycled concrete aggregate range from £5 to £12 per tonne. The cost depends on the quantity, the quality of demolished concrete, and the size and type of plant being used.

Lowest cost comes from large quantities of demolished concrete using high output plant and machinery.

Benefits of Recycled Concrete Aggregate

Recycling demolition concrete is eco-friendly as it preserves natural stone resources. The process uses less energy than mining and reduces the carbon footprint. When concrete is produced on the site where the material has been processed, the reduction in transport costs is significant.

Using recycled concrete gives the contractor LEED or BREEAM points. When tendering for work, the more LEED points that can be provided for a good recycling plan can be the difference between winning or losing the project.

The crushed concrete aggregate has a faster initial set time than virgin material, is lighter in weight, and simpler to place. When it has the right proportions, it has the same shrinkage properties as other concrete.

Recycled concrete aggregate is more economical than using virgin aggregates. The use of the circular economy is a great benefit to protect our natural resources.

About the Author

Bob Evans is the Marketing Director for Fibo Intercon.

Bob has been in the construction and civil engineering industry for over forty years.

You can ask Bob a question on Concrete Disposal or any other question on concrete or concrete batching plant by texting him on 07896 246 224 or Book a CALL.

Book a Call With Bob

You can check Bob’s availability and book a call to suite your diary.

Have You Read Our E-Book? – How To Make More Profit From Concrete

Our customers are having great success using their Fibo Batching Plant.

Their success is coming from lots of methods, that we have documented.

We want to share this success with you, so we have written an e-book called “How To Make More Profit From Your Concrete Production”

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Your Partner in Concrete Solutions

Fibo intercons concrete batching plant is the best avalible on the market, it is a well thougt out solution, designed to provide optimum flexibility, performance and operating efficiency.

It does not require a cast foundation, it can be placed on any even surface.

Our concrete batching plants are designed and built to a very high standard, so it will last more than fifteen years – this insures a very high return on your investment.

Fibo Intercon supply a large range of high quality concrete batching plant with a dosing accuracy of +-3% for standard machines and +-1% for our pre-weighing machines..

Below you can see a small selection of our standard machines, there can be set up and ready to go within two hours.

Understanding Concrete Admixtures


Capacity: 4-5M3/hour
Mini Viking is the ideal solution for small and medium-sized construction projects.

Understanding Concrete Admixtures


Capacity: 10-16M3/hour
B1200 is a compact, mobile batching plant assembled on a joint twin-axle bogie trailer.


Capacity: 25-45M3/hour
M2200 is a mobile batching plant assembled on a joint triple-axle bogie trailer with turn able front axle.


Capacity: 25-60M3/hour
T2200 is a mobile batching plant assembled on a common twin-axle step frame semi trailer.

Horizontal & Vertical Silos

Capacity: 15-66M3
Fibo intercon supplies big bag silos as well as vertical and horizontal cement silos.

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